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Open science and use of images: Citation practices in bibliography and text

Citation practices in bibliography and text

References of image and media resources to be added into a bibliography consist of the following basic information in the APA citation style:

Author, A. (Date). Title of work or image [Format]. Availability

Author, artist, photographer or producer Date Title of work or image Format Date of reference Owner 

Publication information Web address, image database
  Personal name, screen name or organisation Year, time period (2010-2011), or estimate of timing Descriptive title if no proper title Term describing image or media type  [photograph], [map]   Archive, museum, library, collection, storage unit Editors. Publication year. Title.  Place of publication: Publisher, page)

Image URL, name of database,
web address of museum, archive or library

Image database or website of museum, archive or library

Morris, W. (1872). Jasmine [block-printed wallpaper]. Accessed 6.7.2017 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Edward C. Moore Jr. Gift, 1923 (23.163.4j). Retrieved from
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn. (1642). Militia Company of District II under the command of Captain Frans Bannick Cocq, Known as the "Night Watch" [painting]. Accessed 6.7.2017 Rijksmuseum, On loan from the City of Amsterdam, 1808 (SK-C-5).

Retrieved from
Motherwell, R. (1970). Africa Suite: Number 2 [print]. Accessed 7.7.2017 The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1998.407

Retrieved from
Image from Flickr NIH History Office (ca. 1966). Marshall Nirenberg at the National Institutes of Health [photograph]. Accessed 6.7.2017 National Institute of Health Retrieved from
Image in printed book Hals, F. (1628-30). The Merry Drinker [painting]. In Honour, H. & Fleming, J. 1992. Maailman taiteen historia. Helsinki: Otava, 514.
Cézanne, P. (1904-1906). Mont Sainte-Victoire [oil painting]. In Sayre, H.M., Writing about art (6th ed.) (p.54). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009
Map Lewis County Geographic Information Services (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S: Census [demographic map]. Retrieved from
Motion picture Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [motion picture]. United States: Miramax.
Blog post (video) Norton, R. (4.10.2016). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [blog post and video]. Retrieved from
Dataset Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [data file and code book]. Accessed 7.7.2017 Retrieved from

Music recording lang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records


Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of article [Format]. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from



Reference in APA style

Figure #. Hock, K., et al. (2017) Conceptual diagram describing the process for identifying robust source reefs in a coral reef system. [Diagram]. In Connectivity and systemic resilience of the great barrier reef. PLOS Biology, 15(11), e2003355. Retrieved from doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2003355


Author, A. (Date Created). Title [Format]. Date accessed. Retrieved from web site URL

Reference in APA style

Lindh, J. (1920). Ateneum school building. Accessed 10.12.2017. Retrieved from


Author, A. (Year). Title of Work. [Format]. Date accessed. Place work resides. License type: link to license deed.

Reference in APA style

Figure #. NASA (2011). Seeing red [photograph]. Retrieved from CC-BY:

Citing a CC-licensed image on website or in powerpoint presentation

When citing CC-lisenced images made by others you should add references to the image. References consist of the title, author, source and license. A good memory aid is the abbreviation TASL (Title, Author, Source, License). References can be formatted following the examples below in short or longer versions. It is also good practice to add hyperlinks to the author profile (if available), the URL or source of the image and the the CC-lisence deed. 

When publishing your own images on the web you can create a CC-license using the license generator

Image title Author(s) Source License

- Title of image (if available)

- Link to the source where image is available

- Name, screen name or organisation

- Link to author's profile or website

- Image web address, URL

- Link to web address

- CC-license name (short or long version)

- Link to license deed

Seeing Red by NASA (CC-BY)
Seeing Red by NASA is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Seeing Red, made by NASA, is licensed under Creative Commons BY 2.0 license


Author, A. (Role of creator) (Date of creation) Title of image. [Type of work]. Retrieved from database name

Reference in APA-style

Morris, W. Jasmine [wallpaper]. 1872. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Edward C. Moore Jr. Gift, 1923 (23.163.4j). Retrieved from Public domain.


Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Reference in APA-style

Donen, S. (Director). (1963). Charade [motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios. Retrieved from